Saturday, 10 March 2012

Data & Data Processing Methods


Data (play /ˈdtə/ day-tə/ˈdætə/ da-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ dah-tə) are values of qualitative or quantitative variables, belonging to a set of items. Data in computing (or data processing) are often represented by a combination of items organized in rows and multiple variables organized in columns. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be visualised using graphs or images. Data as abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e., unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numberscharacters and is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next. Field data refers to raw data collected in an uncontrolled in situ environment. Experimental data refers to data generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording.
The word data is the plural of datumneuter past participle of the Latin dare, "to give", hence "something given". In discussions of problems in geometrymathematicsengineering, and so on, the terms givens and data are used interchangeably. Such usage is the origin of data as a concept in computer science or data processing: data are numbers, words, images, etc., accepted as they stand.

Data Processing Methods:

Definition and Explanation:

Data must be processed in order to convert it into information. For this purpose, different operations may be performed on data. Therefore, data processing is defined as: "a sequence of operations on data to convert it into useful information".
The important operations that can be performed on data are:
  • Arithmetic and logical operations.
  • To transfer of data from one computer to another.
  • Classification of data.
  • Arranging data into a specific order etc.
The data processing can be accomplished through following methods:
1. Manual Data Processing
2. Mechanical Data Processing
3. Electronic Data Processing

1. Manual Data Processing:

In manual data processing, data is processed manually without using any machine or tool to get required results. In manual data processing, all the calculations and logical operations are performed manually on the data. Similarly, data is -transferred manually from one place to another. This method of data processing is very slow and errors may occur in the output. Mostly, is processed manually in many small business firms as well as government offices & institutions. In an educational institute, for example, marks sheets, fee receipts, and other financial calculations (or transactions) are performed by hand.

2. Mechanical Data Processing:

In mechanical data processing method, data is processed by using different devices like typewriters, mechanical printers or other mechanical devices. This method of data processing is faster and more accurate than manual data processing. Examination boards and printing press use mechanical data processing devices frequently.

3. Electronic Data Processing:

Electronic data processing is the modern technique to process data. The data is processed through computer; Data and set of instructions are given to the computer as input and the computer automatically processes the data according to the given set of instructions. The computer is also known as electronic data processing machine. This method of processing data is very fast and accurate. For example, in a computerized education environment results of students are prepared through computer; in banks, accounts of customers are maintained (or processed) through computers etc. 

2 comments:

MATELO said...

This is great, searched several sites but couldnt get clear explanation of data processing methods.
I'll stay here.

Anonymous said...

nice dude thanks

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